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Efficiency performance is assessed by observing the best practice in the form of a frontier, which is used in a further analysis at three stages of the concept model.

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The final outcome of the concept model is development of efficiency improvement proposals for each cluster of competing companies based on result discussion and recommendations derived from findings of each stage of concept model.

Keywords: performance, efficiency, concept model. However, it is possible to observe best practice and its change through time, and we also observe variation in performance among producers operating beneath best practice.

Interest naturally focuses on the identification of best practice producers, and of benchmarking the performance of the rest against that of the best. Typically, accounting, market, economic value added or balance scorecard based measurements are used for performance assessment purposes.

Accounting and market based performance indicators are prevailing in diversification research. Accounting performance measurements can be also used when nonlisted firms are included.

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Efficiency measurements have appeared in various research fields, including marketing Keh et al. The art of efficiency assessment lies in the establishment of the appropriate model for the given circumstances.

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Methodology of Research The efficiency assessment concept model developed by the author consists of the three stages Figure 1. The first one is establishing key efficiency indicators for the defined set of companies. The analytic hierarchy process AHP is a systematic approach developed in late s to give decision making based on experience, intuition and heuristic in the structure of a well-defined methodology derived from sound mathematical principles Bhushan, Rai, The goal of the expert interviews is to finding out experts' opinion on key efficiency indicators and process results by using AHP and obtaining relevant scores for further assessment.

The second stage brings analysis of key efficiency indicators into play. To measure the SIA Firm Kants Trading levels of firms, two separate methods have been developed by researchers under the rubric of mathematical programming approach and the econometric approach.

Vecvagars M. (Ed.) Mes Esam Gudri, Mes Esam Skaisti..

In DEA, multiple outputs and inputs are reduced into a single output-input form in which efficiency measure is yielded after necessary calculations are completed with linear programming.

Although DEA is frequently used in efficiency analysis its non-stochastic nature prevents researchers to attain comprehensive and sustainable results in many cases. Furthermore, the cluster analysis SIA Firm Kants Trading companies in terms of pre-defined profiles helps to categorise companies into groups in terms in accordance with their similarities and closely study clusters, which constitute the highest interest.

Efficiency assessment concept model prepared by the author The third stage is result discussion and recommendations. Findings from processed results of expert interviews and AHP with findings of the SFA and DEA efficiency analyses as well as cluster and correlation analysis are compared and lay out a foundation for development of efficiency improvement proposals for each cluster.

Business performance can be assessed by observing best practice. The second stage is supposed for an analysis of key efficiency indicators by using DEA and SFA as well as general correlation analysis between variables describing companies' profile and key efficiency indicators and finally, a cluster analysis to facilitate further inter cluster efficiency assessment.

SIA Firm Kants Trading third stage is result discussion and recommendations. Findings derived from first and second staged of the concept model are compared and lay out a foundation for development of efficiency improvement proposals for each cluster of competing companies.

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References Bhushan, N. Charnes, A. Measuring the efficiency of decision making units, European Journal of Operational Research, 2, — Durlauf, S. Racial profiling as a public policy questions: Efficiency, equity, and ambiguity, American Economic Review, 95 2— Garcia-Sanchez, I. Keh, H. Efficiency effectiveness and productivity of marketing in services, European Journal of Operational Research,— Jerzmanowski, M.

Total factor productivity differences: Appropriate technology vs. European Economic Review, 51 8— McCune, J. Efficiency has been flat: Where SIA Firm Kants Trading it headed? Philip, G. IS strategic planning for operational efficiency, Information Systems Management, 24 3— Sceulovs rtu. For a business to be successful it needs to be in a constant and effective evolution adapting to the fluctuating environment.

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Members in a business ecosystem all benefit, invest and contribute to develop a sustained success regarding their common interest. In can include suppliers, lead producers, competitors and other stakeholders that are coevolving and creating proactive and mutual beneficial relationships hence accelerating new technologies and innovation.

Usually the term ecosystem is explained by examples of large corporations such as Apple, Facebook, Google, among others. Is it possible to apply this successful business model for smaller organizations?

This article discusses the sustainable application of ecosystem for small businesses and analyses different approaches and benefits achieved by breaking boundaries among other members and uniting to thrive for a shared goal.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Small and Medium Enterprises.

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Research Methodology The methodology used in this article is Literature Review. Conclusions Ecosystems can be applied to a diverse range of organizations large corporations and SMEs to create, scale and serve markets. There are factors that define the successful SME ecosystem, behaviour and values must be shared among members. Small business should use different approaches to achieve successful businesses.

Ecosystems can be designed and adapted to solve SIA Firm Kants Trading types of problems and reach defined goals. References Kelly, E. Introduction: Business ecosystems come of age.

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Deloitte University Press. EuroStat Statistics Explained Statistics on small and medium-sized tirdzniecības stratēģijas turbo opcijām. To increase innovation performance of the European economies it is necessary on the one hand, to reduce the funding gap in innovation activity and technological gap between the EU member states and, on the other hand, to encourage international cooperation for development of large joint researches and innovation projects aimed at strengthening industrial competitiveness.

The search for effective methods of macroeconomic adjustment is more linked to the changes in all components of aggregate demand and creating of longterm innovative economic growth.

This paper analyses the cik ilgi iegādāties opciju between innovation activity and gross value added.

The empiric study focuses on revealing key factors determining innovation susceptibility and knowledge-driven development of the EU new member states. Keywords: innovation performance, business cycle, development, innovation diffusion, growth.

Introduction SIA Firm Kants Trading the conditions of global imbalance the international economic relations to a great extent will be determined by trends of the European economy as open complicated dynamic system. The search for new methods of economy governance is more linked to transition to a holistic model of long-run innovative economic growth of which quality it is advisable to consider in three dimensions of smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth.

These strategic priorities of the European economy can be implemented using a system approach for enhancing quality of growth through constant innovations to meet SIA Firm Kants Trading, social, environmental demands. The problem of sustainable development can be exacerbated for lack of successful innovations giving new ways of creating high value added.

Hence, there arises need to examine why innovations do not happen? Macroeconomic adjustment analysis has revealed that when instead of technological innovations and transforming business the price stability becomes a key priority of development, economic policy is focused on short term aims.

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However, development of the knowledgebased economy and creation of sustainability are a long-run process. Here it is important to attract venture capital, corporate investors and to develop new financing instruments in order to stimulate the knowledge transfer and to absorb high-tech innovations.

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Enhancement of the interrelationship between knowledge, research and innovations will depend on investment throughout the value chain of innovative SMEs development including their later growth stages. Investigation of interconnection between innovations and sustainable industrial development shows that the cluster kuri ir cūkas buļļi tirdzniecībā radical innovations technologically determines the innovation diffusion.

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Emerged in the science-intensive industries, the cluster becomes a benchmark of developing quasi-optimal technological trajectories. It should be noted that the diffusion of technology takes place iespējas riska pārvaldībā the process of allometric growth with a typical element of heterogeneity. The innovation growth of the business activity, as a continuous process of the qualitative changes, always proceeds under the conditions of uncertainty and in the cyclical form.

Here complex non-linear interrelations of trend, endogenous and exogenous factors take place. Fluctuations of the supply due to changes in the technology level have rather greater influence on the dynamics of a real business-cycle than changes in the demand. At the same time, for European countries, where innovation performance is considerably below the EU average, the transfer of technology can be the key determinant of the sustainable development of manufacturing and smart growth.

There are studies that revealed a positive effect of FDI on economic growth Borensztein et al.

Some empirical studies show SIA Firm Kants Trading positive correlation of product innovation and employment growth in manufacturing Hall et al. In terms of accelerated technological changes, the macroeconomic adjustment should be directed to raising the capacity of knowledge-based enterprises to absorb new technologies and creating the effective investment demand to enhance innovation susceptibility of national economy.

This research is aimed at revealing the relationship between innovation activity and increasing gross value added in the EU New member states. This research adds to the correlation analysis between level of innovation activity, productivity and growth rates that allows explain determining factors of equilibrium innovative growth and macroeconomic sustainability in the EU New member states.

The cyclical behaviour of gross value added, total factor productivity is connected with contribution of innovation factors to economic growth. The effective investment demand should be considered as the initial condition of the upturn phase of the business cycle in these countries. The lack of investment resources and the substantial social differentiation shall hinder the growth of qualitative indicators of sustainable economic development of the EU new member states.

From the point of view of efficiency of the macroeconomic adjustment the basis of the dynamic balanced innovative growth model should be determined by the endogenous elements of the self-sustained growth of the national economies.

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References Arvanitis, S. Barlevy, G. On the Cyclicality of Research and Development. American Economic Review, 97 4 Borensztein, E. Journal of International Economics, 45 1 Hall, B. Industrial and Corporate Change, 17 4 Harrison, R. Does Innovation Stimulate Employment?

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International Journal of Industrial Organization, 35, Kottaridi, C. Journal of Macroeconomics, 32 3 Lucchese, M. Comparative Economic Studies, 54 2 Vivarelli, M. IZA Discussion Papers Yao, S. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35 1 The aim of the research — to identify the cross-border contagion risk transmission channels relevant for the CEECs. The empirical results of this study suggest that the most important cross-border contagion risk transmission channels in CEECs are the following: international trade channel and financial channel.

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Moreover, small open economies are exposed to contagion via different channels such as real links, financial links, or capital market imperfections such as herding behaviour or panics. Variants, kā ātri nopelnīt naudu et al.

The study programme is realized in accordance with the demands of LR normative documents.

Real channel is the fundamental economic relationship existing among economies, whereas, financial links existing when two economies are connected through the international financial system create financial channel. However, herding behaviour by international investors or panic in international financial markets can result external shocks transmission through financial markets channel.

Research methods: the systemic, logical and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, and analysis of statistical data. The identification of cross-border contagion risk transmission channels using a quantitative approach relies on the main indicators characterizing the financial and economic openness of country see Table 1.

Vecvagars M. (Ed.) Mes Esam Gudri, Mes Esam Skaisti.. | PDF

The selection of indicators was based on the availability of statistical data, however, many additional indicators could also be involved. The main binārā opcijas demonstrācijas versija are normalized across European Union EU by using the min-max method.

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Each indicator x for a generic country c and time t is transformed in t.